Even during a heat wave in a hot part of the United States, endurable conditions can be maintained in a fully occupied, belowground shelter with this simple pump, if the test-proven requirements listed below are ALL met. If you’re considering buying a storm shelter to protect your family, the employees at your small business, or the members of your community, you pr… [read more] You’re Always Safer in a Storm Shelter, Even During a Pandemic Prudent Americans, even those living several hundred miles from important targets, whenever practical should equip their shelters with adequate ventilating pumps and dust filters. This simple pump was invented in 1962 by the author. A blade of 4-inch plywood is too heavy. Air movement can keep bare skin drier, and therefore less susceptible to heat rash and skin infections. If you live in a tornado-prone area, you’ll love this post. An ordinary thermometer does not measure effective temperature. The great advantage of Directional Fanning is that almost anyone who is given the field-tested instructions can quickly make and use one of these simple fans. (The Soviet Union already has mobile ICBMs in its nuclear forces.) 3. In the Navy test, the ventilation rate of 7 to 12 cfm was not high enough to give occupants the partial relief from heat and sweating that people normally get at night.15 In a National Academy of Sciences meeting on protective shelters, an authority stated: "Laboratory experiments and field investigations have shown that healthy persons at rest can tolerate daily exposures to ETs [effective temperatures] up to 900 F, provided they can get a good night's sleep in a cooler environment. This repetition is included both to help the reader when he starts to build an air pump and to increase the chances of the best available complete instructions being given to local newspapers during some future crisis. An official website of the United States government. How Do You Breathe Inside A Nuclear Bomb Shelter? The board was nailed to roof poles of the narrow entry trench extending behind the girl in the photograph. Once the tornado is there, be prepared. If you wait until the storm is upon you, you will be exposed to wind, hail, rain, lightning and maybe even flying debris as you try to get to your shelter. However, shelter-building experiments have shown that the physically stronger individuals, usually the more experienced builders, should do more of the hard, manual work when shelters are built, and that those less experienced at building should do the lighter work including making shelter ventilating pumps. Thus with one fan 1,000 cubic feet per minute can he pumped through a fully occupied shelter. ", WARNING: MANY OFFICIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR BUILDING AND VENTILATING SHELTERS ARE LIFE-ENDANGERING. Before a board was inserted, its edges were rounded. By building a storm shelter of course! In hot, humid weather, much more outdoor air than 12 cfm per person must be supplied to a crowded, long-occupied shelter, as will be described in the following section and in Appendix B. Field tests have proved that average Americans can build the expedient air pump described in Appendix B in a few hours, with inexpensive materials found in most households. In contrast, in 1981 I gave copies of instructions for both KAPs and Directional Fans to Dr. Yin Zhi-shu, the Director of the People's Republic of China's National Research and Design Institute of Civil Defense - and the next day he started evaluating these simple devices. Food/Water (Without these screens, the numerous mosquitoes in this irrigated area would have made the family's shelter stay very unpleasant. Due to the intended function of safe rooms and site-specific conditions that need to be addressed, it is FEMA’s recommendation that a licensed design professional be involved. Note that the 20 x :30-inch fan blade is made like a 2-stick kite, and that the upper end of the longer diagonal stick serves ass 10-inch handle. (At that time I was traveling extensively in China as an official guest, exchanging civil defense information.) This publication has all of the details you will need on how to build your own tornado shelter in your area. MAINTAINING ENDURABLE SHELTER CONDITIONS IN HOT WEATHER. Maintaining a storm shelter in preparation for a natural disaster may seem a bit alarmist to some, but if you have ever lived through a tornado, earthquake or tsunami, you understand the need for preparation. Chimney-type ventilation fails completely under these conditions. Each opening was covered by a small awning. As anticipated, so little air flowed through these essentially dead-ended test shelters that temperatures soon became unbearable. Consequently, how best to use available resources must be the primary consideration when planning for protection against the worst dangers of a nuclear attack; relatively minor hazards may have to be accepted. Methods for ventilating with homemade devices and for keeping ventilating air from carrying fallout particles into shelters are described in Appendices A and B. Scavenging is most effective below about 30,000 feet, the maximum height of most rain and snow clouds. If it is windy outside, even some sand-like fallout particles may be blown into a shelter with large ventilation openings. The stabilized clouds of such explosions would be mostly in the troposphere, and some of even the tiniest particles - those small enough to be breathed into one's lungs - would be promptly scavenged and deposited in scattered "hot spots." Size of the Storm Shelter. During hot spells, forced ventilation through these same large air passageways should be provided by using a homemade KAP. A permanent family fallout shelter, built at moderate cost before a crisis, should have a ventilation system that can supply adequate volumes of either filtered or unfiltered air, pumped in through an air-intake pipe and out through an air-exhaust pipe. Pulling a Small. The shelter must be adequately anchored to resist overturning and uplift. 6.4. Only very widely available materials are needed. The pendulum-like, flap-valve pump was swung from two cabinet hinges (not shown) screwed onto a board. It is structurally built to bear wind loads in excess of 250 mph or an EF5 tornado. Except for a relatively few sick people dependent on air conditioning, anyone could endure air that has an effective temperature only 2 degrees F higher than that of the air outdoors. If you have an outdoor concrete shelter, make sure to allow plenty of time to get to the shelter before the tornado arrives. Your filtration and circulation should have backup power, and some nicer setups offer manpower emergency temporary options. So the contractor concluded in his 1978 report to FEMA that the second entry/exit should be eliminated because "The building of entries is time consuming and with this small a shelter a second entry is really not justified.". We do not offer financing, but many banks around the country finance storm shelter loans for under 2% interest rate (APR) or we can refer you to one if you don't already have one in mind. There are Vents on Top of the Shelter. Proper air flow ensures that everyone can breathe down in these shelters without having to panic. This should allow you room to get out of your shelter in the event of a direct hit. This procedure was first proved practical during a 1981 ventilation test that Cresson H. Kearny participated in with Chinese civil defense officials in the port city of Dalien. Check them out below: The best way to protect your family and possessions is with a secure storm shelter. Only extremely small fallout particles can reach the lungs. The reader is advised not to read this section if pressed for time during a crisis, unless he is considering building an expedient or permanent shelter described in an official civil defense publication. At one end was a combined crawlway entrance/air intake opening, at the other end, a 1-foot-square air exhaust opening. These tests were conducted in 1982 near Kansas City in a huge limestone mine that has a ceiling averaging about 17 feet high, corridors about 35 feet wide, columns of unexcavated rock about 15 feet square, and over 1,000,000 square feet of level, dry floor space. The Storm Shelter can be Stamped or Stained. To learn how you can supply a shelter at low cost with air so well filtered that essentially all extremely small fallout particles and infective aerosols are removed, see Appendix E, How To Make a Homemade Plywood Double-Action Piston Pump and Filter. There was a 10-inch space between the air pump and the trench floor, and the resulting flow of air maintained adequate ventilation in the cool of the desert night, when outdoor temperatures dropped as low as 450 F. Cool outdoor air flowed down into the entry and under the motionless air pump, replacing the body-warmed air inside the shelter. 2,3. 1 called it a Punkah-Pump, because its hand- pulled operation is somewhat like that of an ancient fan called a 'punkah", still used by some primitive peoples in hot countries. The guidance contained in FEMA P-320, FEMA P-361 or ICC 500 can all be used to address these extreme loads. These worsening potential dangers from extremely small "hot" fallout particles brought promptly to earth by scavenging are not likely to endanger nearly as many Americans' lives as would 24-hour fallout of much larger particles from surface and near-surface explosions. After 1000 hours of operation during which it pumped air through a room at a rate of 4000 cubic feet per minute (4000 cfm), there were only minor tears in the plastic flaps. Note that this high- protection-factor, covered-trench shelter depends on air flowing down through its "Dust Filter with Straw Packing (hay)" and out through its small "Exhaust Duct with Damper.". Then they repeated. 17: Permanent Family Fallout Shelters for Dual Use, App. The air pump instructions given in Appendix B are the result of having scores of families and pairs of untrained individuals, including children, build and use this air pump. Make the power stroke with the fan blade broadside until the end of the stroke, when you quickly turn it 90 degrees. 6.5. The Directional Fanning instructions on the following two pages may save more lives than any other instructions given in this book for a homemakeable survival item. VENTILATION/COOLING OF PERMANENT SHELTERS. A 2-Handled Directional Fan of the size illustrated (14 in. Obtaining proper building permits and inspections is important for all construction. handle) is less tiring to use and requires less manual dexterity than does a 1-handled fan with the same size blade. The resultant large clouds of extremely small radioactive particles in the troposphere usually would be blown eastward, and resultant life-endangering "hot spots" from rain-outs and/or snow-outs could be scattered clear to the Atlantic coast. B: How to Make and Use a Homemade Shelter-Ventilating Pump, App. See sketch. For maximum ventilation rate, fan about 40 strokes per minute. I gave Directional Fans to the FEMA specialists concerned with shelter ventilation, all of whom have since left FEMA. A.6: Aboveground, Crib-Walled Shelter, App. 6.2 also shows how the air pump hung when not being operated, partially blocking the entry trench and causing a "chimney effect" flow of air at night. (If waterproof construction adhesive is available, a smaller piece of cloth can be used and the blade can be covered in a very few minutes.). A fan with its blade made of two sheets of very heavy cardboard tied on both sides of a 1 x 2-inch board is decidedly effective when dry. A pair of Directional Fanners get ready to make a power stroke by leaning in the upwind direction, as illustrated. Ventilation by pairs of men using Bedsheet Fans is an effective method for forcing very large volumes of outdoor air through tunnels, corridors and mines with ceilings at least 9 feet high - provided they have two large openings. To ventilate and cool a room having only one doorway and no other opening, do not block off any part of the doorway. Register your storm shelter. How long to order and install a shelter? However, if most shelters are fully occupied for a few days without adequate ventilation, the floors, walls, and ceilings, originally cool, will have absorbed about all the body heat of which they are capable. Each fanner should grip his stick with one hand near its "downwind" end and with his other hand near its center. Enough air usually will be blown through an aboveground shelter if sufficiently large openings are provided on opposite sides and if there is any breeze. 2. While watching these top Chinese civil defense professionals make and test KAPs and Directional Fans, I kept thinking: 'This is the way Thomas Edison and Henry Ford would have evaluated simple devices of possible great importance to millions.". The most practical design tested was made from a strong double bedsheet cut down to 6-foot width, with the wide hem at its head-end left unchanged and with a similar- sized hem sewn in its opposite end, to give a finished length of 6 feet. With many more pairs of Bedsheet Fanners working, enough air for at least 10,000 occupants could be "sucked" into this mine through one of its 17 x 20-foot portals, fanned down a corridor to the far "dead end" of the mine, then fanned through across corridor, and finally fanned back out through the corridor that has the second truck-sized portal at its outer end. This woman and her family had to relocate to Oklahoma for her husband’s job. Outside the temperature rose to 930 F. before had attempted to build a novel device of any kind to make serviceable air pumps. Can you install it? A: Instructions for Six Expedient Fallout Shelters, App. One of the most important nuclear war survival skills people should learn is how to keep occupied shelters adequately ventilated in all seasons and cool enough for many days of occupancy in warm or hot weather. Even a parked car will do, if you do not have shelter, hide behind a giant rock. See Fig. Adequate natural ventilation for belowground shelters is more difficult. (Photograph) Fig. If 40 cubic feet per minute (40 cfm) per person of outdoor air is supplied and properly distributed, then (even if the outdoor air is at a temperature which is typical of the hottest hours during a heat wave in a hot, humid area of the United States) the effective temperature of the shelter air will be increased no more than 2 degrees F by the shelter occupants' body heat and water vapor. ° Distribute the air quite evenly throughout the shelter. In warm weather, chimney-type natural ventilation usually is inadequate for most high-protection factor shelters that are fully occupied for days. 6.1. Hang a sliding door and then hire an electrician to run power to … Near-absolute protection means that, based on our current knowledge of tornadoes and hurricanes, the occupants of a safe room built in accordance with FEMA guidance will have a very high probability of being protected from injury or death. An Eskimo igloo is an excellent example of how very small ventilation openings, skillfully located in the ceiling and at floor level, make it possible in cold weather for chimney-type natural ventilation to supply the 1 cfm per person of outdoor air needed to prevent exhaled carbon dioxide from becoming dangerously concentrated. Unless most of the occupants body heat and water vapor from sweat are removed by air circulated through a typical shelter, the heat-humidity conditions will become increasingly dangerous in warm or hot weather. When the ventilation rate is low, smoking should not be permitted, even near the exhaust opening. The sections on the small 2-handled Directional Fan and the large 1-Man Fan will be the most useful to unprepared people. It is important to understand that the heat and water vapor given off by the bodies of people in a crowded, long-occupied shelter could be deadly if fallout prevents leaving the shelter. Consider adding a few extra air vents and doors so that proper airflow is maintained. 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